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The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard for data exchange between a web server and third party software that processes requests. CGI is a variant that has already existed for quite some time and is used in making webpages dynamic and interactive. Its first considerations date to 1993.

The technology to do with Active Server Pages (ASP) is the successor to SSI that was developed by Microsoft and creates server-side webpages using script language such as VBScript, Perl or JScript. ASP was originally only interpreted by the web server Internet Information Services (IIS). Since then, however, there are also various ports for the Apache web server available. ASP was released in 1996. Based on its possibilities for web programming, one can set this technology on the same level as PHP, PerlScript, CFM and Perl. ASP is no longer being updated by Microsoft. The successor technology ASP.NET replaced ASP with the introduction of the .NET framework in 2002.

Web browsers or, as they are generally called, browsers, are specialised computer programmes for displaying websites in the World Wide Web or generally displaying documents and data. Paging through the World Wide Web or calling up any sequence of hyperlinks in succession as a connection between web sites using a programme of this kind is also called ‘surfing the internet’. Along with HTML pages, web browsers can display other types of documents. Web browsers display the user interface for web applications.

The term Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) describes the most common used technology for broadband connections for consumers. It was developed on the basis of DSL technology under certain conditions one of which was that it had to use existing telephone lines without impeding telephony using the land-line connection. At the same time it had to meet the mostly asymmetrical (unequal) data transfer-rate needs for private customers at high reception- and sending rates.

The Very High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) is DSL technology that provides significantly higher data transfer speeds over conventional telephone lines than ADSL, for example. Like all DSL technologies, VDSL also uses the last segment of the transfer link to the customer which is a (twisted) copper line, although the media constantly and incorrectly talk about the use of fibre optic lines even for this segment.

A client is a computer programme that makes contact with another computer programme in order to use its services.

A Content-Management System (CMS) is a system for the shared creation, editing and organisation of content. Content can consist of text and multi-media documents. In most cases, an author can use such a system without programming or HTML skills. In this context, the information content to be presented is referred to simply as ‘content’. Among the best-known open-source CMSs are Joomla, Wordpress, TYPO3 and Drupal. Wordpress and Joomla are the most commonly used.

ColdFusion is a middleware product for web-based database applications designed by the software manufacturer, Adobe System. It essentially consists of the following three parts:

  • ColdFusion Application Server (the world’s first application server)
  • ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML, a script language that makes it possible to programme applications, server-side)
  • Suitable development environments (such as Eclipse or Dreamweaver)

ColdFusion is therefore in direct competition with comparable server-side systems such as ASP.NET, Perl and PHP.

The Domain Name System (DNS) is one of the most important services in the network. Its main task is to answer queries about name resolution.

A name server is a server that provides name resolution. Name resolution is the process that makes it possible to resolve the names of computers or computer services into an address that the computer can process.

A domain is a coherent of a hierarchical Domain Name System (DNS). Every computer in a domain has an individual designation in the DNS (e.g. www). This individual designation is expanded – divided by a dot – with the name of the domain (e.g. The qualified domain name (e.g. constituted in this fashion can be resolved into an IP address by the DNS. The address can then be used to construct network connections to this computer.

An e-mail is a message transferred in computer networks on an electronic pathway. E-mail is regarded –even more than the World Wide Web – as the most important and most-used service on the internet. However approximately 50% of e-mails received in the world (and since 2007, around 90%) have been spam. In 2010 approximately 107 trillion e-mails were sent, of which 89.1% were spam.

Microsoft FrontPage is an HTML-Editor by Microsoft for the Microsoft Windows operating system that works according to the WYSIWYG-principle. The programme belongs to the Office family of products from Microsoft and is included in some variants of the Office programme packet. Correspondingly, it is integrated into the Office Suite and supports Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services. In autumn 2007, the successor to Microsoft FrontPage appeared in the form of Microsoft Expression Web. The editor can access websites, referred to as webs in FrontPage-jargon, both in the local file system and/or open network drives, and also via HTTP, using individually developed server-side 'FrontPage Extensions'.

Microsoft FrontPage Server Extensions (FPSE) are expansions that supplement the FrontPage client with additional functions. FPSEs are installed on the web server.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP), is a network protocol for transferring files over IP networks. It was specified in RFC 959 from1985. It is used to transfer files from server to client (downloading), from client to server (uploading) or client-driven between two end devices. Furthermore, directories can be stored and read using FTP and directories and files can be re-named or deleted.

Hosting is the storage of internet projects that, as a rule, can also be called up publicly via the internet. This task is taken over by internet service providers (providers or webhosts), which supply web storage, data bases, e-mail addresses and other products and enable the exchange of data through the internet. These providers generally store the websites that their customers upload using SFTP or FTP on their servers and may also take on the registration of domains and their publication DNS.

.htaccess is a configuration file in which various directory specific settings can be made on NCSA-compatible web servers. For example, access protection using HTTP authentication can be set up there for a directory or single files. But it can also be used to generate error pages or internal links without the need to re-start the server. Changes to the htaccess file take effect immediately since they are evaluated on each inquiry to the web server.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), often called hypertext for short, is a text-based mark-up language for structuring content such as texts, images and hyperlinks in documents. HTML documents are the basis for the World Wide Web and are displayed in a web browser. Along with the web page information that the browser displays, HTML contains additional information in the form of meta-information that provides details, e.g., about the language used in the text or the author or which summarises the content of the text. The current version of HTML is 4.01. HTML5 is in development.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol for the transfer of data over a network. It is primarily used in order to load web pages from the World Wide Web (WWW) into a web browser.

A hyperlink, short link, or electronic link is a cross-reference in a hypertext that functionally carries out a jump to another location inside the same or to a different electronic document. If the hyperlink is executed, the target stated in the hyperlink is automatically called up. However, other files in the system or connected to the system can also be called up using the hypertext system. Thus hyperlinks can also be used to reach films, images and animations or to download files to a computer.

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), originally called ‘Interactive Mail Access Protocol’, is a network protocol that provides a network filing system for e-mails. IMAP was designed in 1986 with the aim of making access to mailboxes and messages as they appeared to be on the local computer. Compared to POP3, IMAP offers more advanced functions such as managing messages on the server. A different protocol (e.g. SMTP) must be used to send mails. The Port number registered for IMAP with the IANA is 143. Port 993 is reserved for IMAP over SSL (encrypted connection, IMAPS).

The internet, ‘the net’ for short, is a worldwide network consisting of many computer networks through which data is exchanged. It makes it possible to use internet services such as e-mail, Telnet, Usenet, file transfer, WWW and, recently, telephony, radio and television in an increasing measure. In principle, every computer can be connected with every other computer worldwide. The data exchange between the individual internet computers is affected using technically normed internet protocols. The technology of the internet is described by the RFCs of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Colloquially, the term ‘internet’ is often used synonymously with WWW, since it is one of the most-used internet services and has contributed significantly to the popularity of the medium. In contrast, other media services, such as telephony, television and radio, have only recently been available on the internet and continue to operate their original means of technical dissemination parallel to it.

An IP-address is an address in computer networks that are based on the internet protocol (IP), such as the internet. It is assigned to devices that are connected to the net and so makes the devices addressable and thereby reachable. The best-known notation of the IPv4 addresses common today consists of four numbers that can assume values between 0 and 255 and are separated by a dot, for example Technically speaking, the address is a 32-digit (IPv4) or 128-digit (IPv6) binary number.

Internet Service Providers (ISP), often just ‘Providers’ in the English-speaking world, provide services, content or technical services that are necessary for the use or operation of content and services on the internet (e.g. internet access, hosting).

JavaScript is a script language that is primarily used for DOM scripting in web browsers.

The MAC Address (Media Access Control Address) is the hardware address of every individual network adapter that serves to clearly identify the device in a computer network. In the case of Apple, it is also referred to as an Ethernet ID, Airport ID or Wi-Fi address; in the case of Microsoft, the physical address.

Microsoft SQL Server (also called MSSQLServer) is a relational data base management system by Microsoft.

TMySQL is a relational data base management system. It is available both as open-source software as well as a commercial enterprise version for various operating systems and forms the basis for many dynamic web sites.

The online shop offers goods and digital products for sale in the internet. In a shop system, basically software is on offer with shopping cart functionality. The buyer selects the product and places it in the shopping cart. There is a physical business behind an e-shop that then processes the order. There is a variety of e-shop software for this sales channel (e.g. osCommerce).

PHP (recursive acronym for ‘PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor’, backronym from ‘Personal Home Page Tools’) is a script language with a syntax based on C and Perl that is primarily used to create dynamic websites or web applications. PHP is disseminated as free software under the PHP licence. PHP is characterised by the breadth of database support and internet protocol connection as well as the availability of numerous function libraries. PHP is used as the server-side programming language on about 75% of all websites and is therefore the language most frequently used to create web sites.

A plug-in (often also called a plugin or expansion module) is a computer programme, that is ‘plugged into’ another software product and thus expands its functionality. Software manufacturers often define interfaces with their products with whose help third party expansions (plug-ins) can programme for these software products. Widely disseminated examples of plug-ins are the flash player or Java plug-in for various web browsers.

The Post Office Protocol (POP) is a transfer protocol that allows a client to retrieve e-mails from an e-mail server. Version 3 (POP3) is described with RFC 1939. POP3 is an ASCII protocol in which the data transfer is controlled by means of commands that are sent to Port 110 as default. POP3 has very restricted functionality and enables only the listing, retrieval and deleting of e-mails on the e-mail server. For other functionalities, such as hierarchical mailboxes directly on the mail server, access to several mailboxes during a session, pre-selection of e-mails, etc., protocols like IMAP must be used. As a counterpart to POP3, the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is commonly implemented by clients and servers for sending e-mails.

The Postmaster is the local part of an e-mail address that every domain supporting e-mail must have according, to internet standards such as RFC 822 and RFC 1123. The address is designed to be able to contact someone who is responsible for the domain’s e-mails even under very adverse conditions. For example, someone who can help should be available at the address if no e-mails are being accepted by another e-mail address ending with

Routers are network devices that connect or separate –depending on viewpoint–several computer nets. The router analyses the incoming data packets according to their target address and blocks or forwards them. Routed packets thus either land in a target net directly attached to the router (also target sub-net) or are forwarded to another router reachable in the net.

Search Engine Optimization is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's un-paid search results.

A shared server is a host on which several virtual servers are operated. The virtual servers share the resources of the host. Shared server are used primarily by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) (for example, Webland), e.g,. for web hosting packages. Hardware- and housing costs can thereby be distributed over several customers, which means that the end-customer prices for servers operated on shared servers is markedly lower than those of dedicated servers.

Webland SmartSync is based on the data-synchronisations protocol Exchange ActiveSync® (EAS) by Microsoft. This protocol was developed by Microsoft in order to synchronise mobile devices with a central server. The licensed EAS protocol makes real ‘over-the-air’ synchronisation of iPhones and other devices possible without the need to install additional software.

Webland SmartSync supports the so-called DirectPush® function from Microsoft. The DirectPush® function makes it possible to synchronise data initialised by the Xchange server with your mobile telephone. Your data can be downloaded anywhere and everywhere, keeping you constantly up-to-date.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol of the internet protocol family that is used for exchanging e-mails in computer networks. It is primarily used to upload and forward e-mails. To retrieve messages, other specialised protocols are used, such as POP3 or IMAP. SMTP-servers accept traditional connections on Port 25. Newer servers also use Port 587 to receive mail from authenticated users that must then be forwarded to other mail servers. This should prevent spam.

Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is a simple email-validation system designed to detect email spoofing by providing a mechanism to allow receiving mail exchangers to check that incoming mail from a domain comes from a host authorized by that domain's administrators. The list of authorized sending hosts for a domain is published in the Domain Name System (DNS) records for that domain in the form of a specially formatted TXT record. Email spam and phishing often use forged "from" addresses, so publishing and checking SPF records can be considered anti-spam techniques.

SQL is a data base language for defining, querying and manipulating data in relational databases. SQL is standardised by ANSI and the ISO and is used by nearly all conventional database systems. Although the designation ‘SQL’ is generally thought, in common parlance, to be an abbreviation of ‘Structured Query Language’, it is an independent name according to the ANSI-standard.

Transport Layer Security (TLS), more widely known under the previous designation Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is a hybrid encryption protocol for secure data transfer in the internet. Since Version 3.0, the SSL-protocol has been updated and standardised under the new name TLS, with Version 1.0 of TLS corresponding to Version 3.1 of SSL.

A sub-domain is a domain that is located under another domain in the hierarchy. In common parlance, therefore, most domains referred to are actually domains on the third level or further down. A domain that is located directly under the Top- Level Domain is colloquially referred to as a Second-Level Domain or just a domain. For example, is a sub-domain of the Top-Level Domain ch. or is a sub-domain of

Transmission Control Protocol / internet protocol (TCP/IP) is a family of network protocols and is also referred to as the internet protocol family due to its great importance to the internet. The computer participating in the network is identified by an IP-address. A computer or generally a device with an IP-address is designed as a host in TCP/IP-jargon. Originally, TCP was developed as a monolithic network protocol; however, it was later separated into the protocols IP and TCP. The core group of the protocol family is supplemented by the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as an additional transport protocol. Additionally, there are numerous auxiliary and application protocols, such as DHCP and ARP.

Every domain name in the internet consists of a sequence of characters separated by dots. The designation top-level domain (TLD) specifies the last name in this sequence and thus represents the highest level of name resolution. If the complete domain name of a computer or website is, for example, the righthand segment (.ch) is the top-level domain of this name.

WebDAV (Web-based distributed authoring and versioning) is an open standard for preparing data in the internet. With it, users can access their data as they would on an online hard drive. Technically speaking, WebDAV is an expansion of the protocol HTTP/1.1, that removes certain restrictions from HTTP. Until now, online forms have for the most part only offered the ability to upload single files (HTTP-POST). With WebDAV entire directories can be transferred.

Web hosting or net hosting is providing web space and storing (hosting) web pages on the web server of an Internet Service Providers (ISP). The web host, called a provider, generally makes its resources available for a cost. Included among these resources is the facility to specifically provide and operate the host, webserver and other network connections.

Webmasters deal with the planning, graphic design, lay-out, development, maintenance, marketing and administration of websites and applications in the internet or in the intranet of an organisation. They are the first contact for technical problems, questions or suggestions concerning a website.

A web server is a computer that transfers documents to clients like, for example, web browsers. The term web server refers to a computer with web server software or just the web server software itself. Web servers are used locally, in company networks and predominantly as a WWW service in the internet. Documents can thus be made available for the requested purpose locally, within the company and worldwide.

The term web space describes a memory location forfiles on a server that can be accessed via the internet at all times. Web spaceis provided by internet service providers to enable customers to save andpublish documents and data inventories (like music files), web sites or partsthereof. Providing web space is referred to as web hosting or also net hosting.Web space is an immaterial product that is generally characterised by itsamount of memory storage, file traffic limit and other functions such asexecutable script languages server-side (for example PHP, Perl, ASP).

Wireless Local Area Network (Wireless LAN, W-LAN, WLAN) designates a local wireless network, mostly referring to a standard of the IEEE-802.11-family. For this narrower meaning, the term W-Fi is widely used in some countries (e.g. USA, Spain, France, Italy).

Webland Xchange is based on the communications solution by IceWarp. Webland Xchange is based on the data-synchronisation-protocol Exchange ActiveSync® (EAS) by Microsoft. This protocol was developed by Microsoft to synchronise mobile devices with a central server. The licensed EAS-protocol makes a real ‘over-the-air” synchronisation of iPhones and other devices possible without the need to install additional software. Webland Xchange supports the so-called DirectPush® function by Microsoft. The DirectPush® function makes it possible to synchronise data initialised by the Xchange-server with your mobile phone. This means your data are up-to-date everywhere and at all times.

IceWarp Server (formerly IceWarp Merak Mail Server) is a proprietary communications solution with the core components Mailserver and Groupware. The entire solution was developed by the European company IceWarp Ltd.; official partners (such as Webland) handle distribution and support.

The Exchange Server is a Groupware and message system from Microsoft. It is used most of all in infrastructures shaped by Microsoft products and is suitable for networks of all sizes. It can be used to construct intranets, manage and filter e-mails, generate schedules, make appointments and hold discussions. Microsoft Exchange Server uses a proprietary RPC protocol named MAPI, which is used by Microsoft Outlook, among others, as well. Entourage, Microsoft’s PIM Software and Exchange-Client for Mac OS X, use WebDAV instead of MAPI.

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